What are Political parties? How do these form? Here the nature and functioning of political parties in India are explained which will help the students to formulate important concepts from an examination point of view.
In this post, we have provided Political Parties Class 10 Notes and NCERT Solutions. Students can learn about the needs and importance of political parties, regional and national political parties of India, etc. through this article. They can gain comprehensive knowledge on all the topics of the chapter in an easy manner.
Political Parties Class 10 Notes
A political party is a group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. These parties have a shared ideology, policy platform, and a set of values that guide their decision-making.
A political party has three components:
- The leaders
- The active members
- The followers
Why Do We Need Political Parties?
We Need Political Parties to elect representatives accountable, govern a country, provide stability, and encourage citizen participation. They offer a platform for citizens to express their views, and they seek to mobilize support for their policies and ideas.
The Function of Political Parties
- to represent different groups of citizens, advocating for their interests and values.
- to develop policy platforms and ideas.
- to mobilize voters and build support for their policies and ideas.
- to contest elections, offering citizens a choice of candidates and political platforms.
- to form governments when they win elections, and to implement their policies and ideas.
- The political parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition parties in power & keep a watch and criticize the government for its wrong policies.
The Necessity of Political Parties
We need political parties to represent the interests of different groups of people in society and provide a mechanism for citizens to participate in the political process. They provide a means for citizens to hold their elected representatives accountable, by monitoring their actions and policies. They encourage citizen participation in the political process, by providing opportunities for citizens to get involved in politics and build a sense of community.
How Many Parties Should We Have?
India is a democratic country so any group of citizens is free to form a political party. The Election Commission of India has registered more than 750 political parties. There are three systems of political parties in the world.
One Party System
A form of government in which a single political party has complete control over the government and dominates all aspects of political life.
Example-China, where the Chinese Communist Party has been the ruling party since 1949.
Two Party System
A form of government in which two major political parties dominate the political landscape and have a significant influence on the government.
For example– in the United States, where the Democratic Party and the Republican Party are the two major political parties that have dominated politics for decades.
A form of government in which multiple political parties operate and compete for power. In this system, no single party usually has a majority, and governments are formed through coalition building and alliances.
For example, there are several political parties that have a significant presence in national politics.
National Parties | Political Parties Class 10
National parties are political parties that have a significant presence across multiple states in a country. In India, a political party is recognized as a national party by the Election Commission of India if it meets the following criteria-
- Winning at least 6% of the total votes of seats in the Lok Sabha (the lower house of parliament) or the state legislative assemblies.
- Having a certain percentage of votes in 4 states wins at least 4 seats in the Lok Sabha.
Major National Parties in India
As of 2021, there are eight national parties in India recognized by the Election Commission of India. The major national parties in India are:
- Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) –
It is one of the major national political parties in India.
It was formed in 1980.
Its ideology is based on the principles of Hindu nationalism.
It has been in power at the national level since 2014, after winning a majority in the Lok Sabha in the general elections held that year Under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
- Indian National Congress (INC) –
It is one of the oldest and historically significant parties in India, which was in power at the national level for several decades after independence.
It was founded in 1885. Its ideology is based on secularism, democracy, and social justice.
Some of India’s most famous leaders, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, Indira Gandhi, and Rajiv Gandhi, have been associated with the INC.
- Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) –
It is a leftist party with a significant presence in states like Kerala and West Bengal.
It was founded in 1964.
It follows Marxist ideology and advocates for a socialist system of governance, with a focus on workers’ rights and rural development.
- Communist Party of India (CPI) –
It is another leftist party with a presence in several states.
It was founded in 1925.
It follows the ideology of Marxism-Leninism and advocates for socialism and the welfare of the working class.
- Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) –
It is a regional party with a significant presence in the western state of Maharashtra.
It was formed in 1999 by Sharad Pawar, who was a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress.
It advocates for a secular and democratic system of governance, with a focus on economic development and social justice.
- Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) –
It is a party that primarily represents the interests of Dalits (formerly known as “untouchables”) and Other Backward Classes.
It was founded in 1984 by Kanshi Ram, a prominent Dalit activist.
It has also made efforts to expand its base in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Rajasthan along with Uttar Pradesh.
- All India Trinamool Congress (AITC) –
It is a regional party with a significant presence in the eastern state of West Bengal.
It was founded in 1998 by Mamata Banerjee, who was a former member of the Indian National Congress.
It advocates for a secular and democratic system of governance, with a focus on social justice and economic development.
- Samajwadi Party (SP) –
It is a regional party with a significant presence in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh.
It was founded in 1992 by Mulayam Singh Yadav.
It advocates for a socialist system of governance, with a focus on social justice and equitable distribution of resources.
State Parties | Political Parties Class 10
The political parties operate primarily within a specific state or a group of states in India. These parties have a regional focus and are often formed to represent the interests of a particular state. Some of these parties are:
Biju Janata Dal (BJD)
Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) etc.
Challenges to Political Parties
The major challenges faced by political parties in India:
- Many parties are involved in unethical practices such as accepting bribes and using black money for election campaigns.
- Many parties rely on caste and religious vote banks, which can lead to neglect of other issues and interests.
- Many political parties in India lack internal democracy and are controlled by a few powerful individuals or families.
- Many political parties in India are dominated by political families, where leadership is passed down from one generation to the next.
How can Parties be Reformed?
Some of the recent efforts and suggestions to reform political parties and their leaders in India are done through the following:
It was amended to prevent elections.
Now MPs and MLAs lose their seats in The Parliament or a state assembly if they change parties.
The Supreme Court:
It passed certain orders to reduce the power of money and criminals.
A candidate has to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
The Election Commission:
It says the political parties to file their income tax returns.
They have to hold organizational elections.
There are some other ways in which political parties can be reformed.
i) They should take steps to increase the participation of women, members of marginalized communities, and young people through the reservation of party positions and candidacies.
ii) They should support electoral reforms such as the introduction of state funding of elections, limits on campaign expenditure, etc.
iii)They should conduct regular internal elections.
iv) They should prevent corruption within their ranks, such as regular audits of party finances and strict enforcement of codes of conduct.
v) They should disclose all donations received by them.
political parties class 10 questions and answers
1. State the various functions political parties perform in a democracy.
Answer: Political parties perform various functions :
- They provide a platform for citizens to express their views and preferences.
- They encourage citizens to participate in the democratic process, by casting their votes.
- They provide a choice of candidates to their voters.
- They strive to win elections so that they can form the government and implement their policies.
- They monitor the performance of the government
- They raise awareness about the importance of civic participation.
- They encourage citizens to take an active role in shaping their communities and their country.
2. What are the various challenges faced by political parties?
Answer: The various challenges faced by political parties are the following:
Lack of internal democracy: If power is concentrated in the hands of a few leaders or families. This can weaken the party’s ability to function effectively.
The dynastic succession: A rule in which the practice of political power is passed down within a family from one generation to the next. It leads to a concentration of power in the hands of a few families, reducing competition and diversity in the political arena.
Money and Muscle Power – Wealthy individuals or corporations who donate funds to the parties tend to have an influence on the policies and decisions of the parties.
No Meaningful Choice: It is a situation in which voters feel that their options in an election are limited and that they do not have a genuine choice between different candidates or political parties.
Casteism and Religion: These have always been challenged. People prefer to vote for representatives of their own caste and religion.
3. Suggest some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well.
Answer: There are some reforms to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well.
- Political parties should ensure that their decision-making processes are transparent and democratic.
- Regular meetings should be organized for the party workers.
- There should be strict regulations on party funding to prevent the undue influence of money power on political parties.
- Criminals should not be allowed to contest elections.
- The goal of political parties should be to help people and the nation.
- One-third reservation should be given to the women at the parties.
4. What is a political party?
Answer: A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a political party. These parties have a shared ideology, policy platform, and a set of values that guide their decision-making.
5. What are the characteristics of a political party?
Answer: The characteristics of a political party are the following:
- There are three components of a political party— leader, active members, and followers.
- Political parties are organized groups of individuals who share common beliefs, values, and goals.
- Membership is voluntary and members may actively participate in party activities and decision-making.
- Political parties compete with one another for political power and influence.
- Political parties are accountable to their members and the general public.
6. A group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government is called a _____________________.
Answer: political party
7. Match List-I (organizations and struggles) with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists.
Answer: Option (c) is the correct answer.
8. Who among the following is the founder of the Bahujan Samaj Party?
A. Kanshi Ram
B. Sahu Maharaj
C. B.R. Ambedkar
D. Jotiba Phule
Answer: A. Kanshi Ram
9. What is the guiding philosophy of the Bharatiya Janata Party?
A. Bahujan Samaj
B. Revolutionary democracy
C. Integral humanism
Answer: C. Integral humanism
10. Consider the following statements on parties.
A. Political parties do not enjoy much trust among the people.
B. Parties are often rocked by scandals involving top-party leaders.
C. Parties are not necessary to run governments.
Which of the statements given above is correct?
(a) A, B, and C (b) A and B (c) B and C (d) A and C
Answer: (b) A and B
FAQs of Political Parties Class 10 notes
What is a Political Parties Class 10 short summary?
A political party is an organized group of people who share similar political ideologies and goals. They aim to achieve political power by participating in elections and influencing public policy.
What are the functions of political parties in five points Class 10?
1. Political parties represent the views and interests of their members and supporters.
2. They nominate candidates to contest in elections.
3. Work to mobilize voters to participate in the political process.
4. They organize campaigns, rallies, and other events to increase voter turnout and engage citizens in the electoral process.
5. They form a government by winning elections.
How many National Political Parties are there in India?
There are 8 National Political Parties in India – BJP, INC, CPI(M), CPI, BSP, SP, NCP, and AITC.
Conclusion of Political Parties Class 10 notes
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