Federalism class 10 Notes focuses on the form of power sharing in modern democracies. That is very important for the design of democracy. In this chapter, the theory and practice of Federalism in India are explained in detail & and at the end of the chapter, the concept of the local government, a new and third-tier system of government is given. This post provides the Notes & Ncert Solutions in a simple way to understand. The given answers will surely help the students in scoring good marks.
What is Federalism Class 10 Notes?
A system of government in which power is divided between a central government and states or provinces.
In a federal system, the central government has the power to make decisions that affect the entire country, while the states or provinces have the power to make decisions that affect only their own territory.
In a federal system, the central government and the states or provinces each have their own set of powers and responsibilities
Federalism can be contrasted with other systems of government, such as unitary systems.
What is the difference Between Unitary System and Federal System?
What are the Key Features of Federalism?
- Power is divided between the central government and the states or provinces. Each level of government has its own powers and responsibilities.
- Both levels of government have the power to make and enforce their own laws.
- There is an independent judiciary that can interpret the Constitution and settle disputes.
- A federal system is based on a written constitution that establishes the framework for how power is divided and how the system will operate.
- Each level of government collects revenue to ensure its financial autonomy.
- The federal system has dual objectives:
(i) To safeguard and promote the unity of the country
(ii) Accommodate regional diversity.
What are two kinds of Federations?
Coming Together Federation:
A federal system in which independent states voluntarily form a bigger union. They enhance their security by pooling their sovereignty and identity. The states and the central have equal power. Example: USA, Australia, Switzerland.
Holding Together Federation:
A federal system in which a large country divides its power between the states and the central government. The central government is more powerful than the state government. Example: India, Spain, & Belgium.
What Makes India a Federal Country?
The Constitution of India lays down the powers of both levels of government and the subjects on which they can legislate. The powers of the central government are enumerated in the Union List, while the powers of the state governments are enumerated in the State List. Both levels of government also have powers under the Concurrent List, which are shared between them.
The Union List:
It includes the subjects of national interests such as defense, foreign policy, atomic energy, and banking, post, railways.
Only the central government can pass laws on these subjects.
The State List:
It includes the subjects such as police, local government, trade and commerce, and agriculture within the states.
Only the state government can pass laws on these subjects.
The Concurrent List:
It includes subjects such as education, forest, trade union, marriage, etc.
Both the central and the state can make laws on these subjects.
How is Federalism Practised?
The real success of federalism in India is assigned to its nature of democratic politics such as regard for diversity and the desire for living together became shared values in our country. Let us look at some of the major ways in which federalism is practiced in India.
The formation of linguistic states in India was a significant political development that took place in the 1950s and 1960s. Before India’s independence, the country was divided into provinces, which had no regard for linguistics. After independence, demands for the creation of states based on linguistic identity started to gain momentum. The first linguistic state to be created in India was Andhra Pradesh in 1953.
The Constitution of India recognizes 22 official languages. Hindi is the official language of the central government. State governments are free to choose their own official languages, and many states have adopted one or more regional languages as their official language(s).
Restructuring the Centre-State relations has strengthened the practice of federalism in India. If no single party gets a clear majority in the Lok Sabha, the major national parties can ally with many parties including several regional parties to form a government at the Centre which is known as Coalition Government. This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the freedom of State Governments.
Decentralisation in India
Decentralization means the transfer of power and decision-making authority from the central government to the state governments and local governments (i.e., panchayats and municipalities).
The process of decentralization was taken in India in 1992, which provided constitutional status to local self-government institutions.
It aims to promote participatory democracy and empower local communities by involving them in decision-making processes and ensuring that their needs and concerns are taken into account.
There are three levels of government in India) Union Government, ii) State Government, and iii) local Government.
What are the reasons for decentralization in India?
- Local parties can be involved in decision-making processes
- Local governments can understand the local problems
- Local people have better knowledge of local problems.
- The local government ensures the stability, strength, and health of democracy.
- People can approach a local government for solving their problems easily and quickly
The Constitution was amended to make the third-tier structure of panchayats (village councils) at the village level, block-level panchayats at the intermediate level, and district-level panchayats at the top level of democracy which is more powerful and effective. The key features of 3-tier democracy are the following:
- Mandatory to hold regular elections for local government bodies.
- Reservation for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Backward Classes.
- one-third of all seats are reserved for women in the third-tier structure of panchayats.
- A state Election Commission has been created in each State to conduct panchayat and municipal elections.
- A state finance commission examines the financial position.
Federalism Class 10 Notes Question Answers
1. Locate the following States on a blank outline political map of India: Manipur, Sikkim, Chhattisgarh, and Goa.
2. Identify and shade three federal countries (other than India) on a blank outline political map of the world.
Answer: Pakistan, South Africa, and Australia.
3. Point out one feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to and one feature that is different from that of Belgium.
Answer. One feature in the practice of federalism in India that is similar to that of Belgium – There is power-sharing between the union government and state government.
One feature in the practice of federalism in India that is different from that of Belgium – India has no community government in practice, while Belgium has one.
4. What is the main difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one? Explain with an example.
Answer: Federal Form: Power Sharing is divided between union and state government. Example – India (India is a federal country with a union government at the center and state governments at the state level and Panchayati Raj at the local level.)
Unitary Form: All power and authority reside in the central government. The state government is subordinate to the central government. Example – Sri Lanka (The national government has all the powers.)
5. State any two differences between the local government before and after the constitutional amendment in 1992.
Answer: Local Government before-1992: i) Elections were not held regularly.
ii) Local governments did not have any powers of their own.
Local Government after 1992: i) It is mandatory to hold regular elections for local government bodies.
ii) The State governments are required to share some powers and revenue with local government bodies.
6. Fill in the blanks:
Since the United States is a ___________________ type of federation, all the constituent States have equal powers and States are ______________vis-à-vis the federal government. But India is a _____________________ type of federation and some States have more power than others. In India, the ____________ government has more powers.
Answer: coming together, strong, holding together, central
7. Here are three reactions to the language policy followed in India. Give an argument and an example to support any of these positions.
Sangeeta: The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity.
Arman: the Language-based States have divided us by making everyone conscious of their language.
Harish: This policy has only helped to consolidate the dominance of English over all other languages.
Answer. The policy of accommodation has strengthened national unity is a correct reaction to the language policy followed in India. because India stands in unity with states having different languages if India had not followed the policy of accommodation, several states could have proposed separation states based on language from the country.
8. The distinguishing feature of a federal government is:
(a) The national government gives some powers to the provincial governments.
(b) Power is distributed among the legislature, executive, and judiciary.
(c) Elected officials exercise supreme power in the government.
(d) Governmental power is divided between different levels of government
Answer: d. Governmental power is divided between different levels of government
9. A few subjects in various Lists of the Indian Constitution are given here. Group them under the Union, State, and Concurrent Lists as provided in the table below.
A. Defence B. Police C.Agriculture D.Education E.Banking F. Forests G.Communications
H.Trade I. Marriages
10. Examine the following pairs that give the level of government in India and the powers of the government at that level to make laws on the subjects mentioned against each. Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?
|State government||State List|
|Central government||Union List|
|Central and State governments||Concurrent List|
|Local governments||Residuary powers|
|Local governments||Residuary powers|
11. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the codes given below the lists:
|Union of India||Prime Minister|
Answer: The correct answer is–
a) Union of India – Prime Minister
b) State –Governor
c) Municipal Corporation-Mayor
d) Gram Panchayat- Sarpanch
12. Consider the following two statements.
A. In a federation, the powers of the federal and provincial governments are clearly demarcated.
B. India is a federation because the powers of the Union and State Governments are specified in the Constitution and they have exclusive jurisdiction on their respective subjects.
C. Sri Lanka is a federation because the country is divided into provinces.
D. India is no longer a federation because some powers of the States have been devolved to the local government bodies.
Which of the statements given above is correct?
(a) A, B, and C
(b) A, C, and D
(c) A and B only
(d) B and C only
Answer. (c) A and B only
1. What is Federalism Class 10? Explain with an example.
A system of government where power is shared between the central government and the state governments.
Example-In India, the central government has powers over defense, foreign policy, and currency, while the states have powers over matters such as education, healthcare, and local government.
2. What are the sources of revenue for the States in India?
The sources of revenue for the States in India are the following:
1. Taxes on income, goods, and services
2. Grants-in-aid from the Central Government
3. Which topics are covered in Chapter 2 Federalism?
2. Different forms of Federalism
3.Federalism in India
4. Division of powers between the Centre and the States
5. Decentralisation and democratic rights
6. Local Governments in India
4. What are the key features of a federal form of government?
1. Division of powers between central and regional governments.
2. Independent authority of both levels of government.
3. Written constitution
4. The supremacy of the Constitution
5. Dual citizenship
5. What is the significance of the division of powers in federalism?
The division of powers in federalism ensures the distribution of responsibilities and authority between central and regional governments.
It prevents the concentration of power.
It promotes a balanced system of governance.
6. What is the role of the President and Governor in a federal system?
In a federal system, the President is the head at the central level and Governor at the state level. They represent the executive authority of their respective governments and perform administrative functions.
7. What are the limitations of federalism?
Conflict and power struggle between central and state governments.
Inefficiency in decision-making and policy implementation.
The possibility of economic disparity between states.
danger of regionalism
8. What is the difference between the working of federalism in India and the United States?
In India, federalism is based on a strong central government with substantial powers over the states. The United States has a more balanced distribution of powers between the federal government and the individual states.
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