Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes | Easy Concept

Nationalism in India is an important topic included in the syllabus of class 10 students. It explores the history, events, and ideologies that shaped the Indian nationalist movement in the early 20th century. The objective of this post is to provide comprehensive and informative Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes to the students to help them understand easily.

What is Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes?

Nationalism in India means the movement that was held in the late 19th century and early 20th century to get freedom from British rule and establish a sovereign nation-state. It was characterized by a wide range of political, cultural, and social movements that aimed to create a unified Indian identity and challenge British imperialism.

When did the First World War start and end?

Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
The First World War | Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes

The First World War was begun on 28 July 1914 and ended on 11 November 1918.  
This war was fought between the Allies(Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Italy, and the United States) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire)

What were the effects of the First World War?

  • The First World War created a new political and economic situation in India after 1919.
  • Income tax was introduced and the prices of customs duties were doubled.
  • Increase in defence expenditure.
  • Prices increased through the war years.
  • Forced recruitment in rural areas.
  • Crops failed in many parts of India resulting in a shortage of food led by an influenza epidemic.
  • Hardships did not end after the war was over.

What is Satyagraha?

Satyagraha: Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes
Satyagraha | Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes

Satyagraha was a new method of mass agitation. It is a non-aggressive, peaceful mass agitation against the oppression and injustice of the British. it emphasized the power of truth and the need to search for truth. According to Mahatma Gandhi, people can win a battle with non-violence which will unite all Indians and create feelings of nationalism.
Gandhiji organized Satyagraha Movements in Champaran in Bihar, In 1917 to inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
He supported the peasants of the Kheda district of Gujarat through the Satyagraha Movement.
He organized a satyagraha movement among cotton mill workers of Ahmedabad in 1918.

What was the Rowlatt Act?

The Rowlatt Act was passed by the British government in 1919, according to that, they could arrest people and put them in prison without any trial for two years.
This act was passed through the Imperial Legislative Council to suppress the political activities in India by giving enormous powers to the Government.

What role did Mahatma Gandhi play in the opposition to the Rowlatt Act?

Mahatma Gandhi called upon the people to perform satyagraha against this act and called it the Black Act.
Hartal started on 6 April 1919 against the act peacefully. Rallies were organized in different cities. Workshops and shops closed down.

Now the British administration decided to suppress nationalists. They arrested the local leaders. Mahatma Gandhi was banned from entering Delhi. On 10 April the Police fired upon a peaceful procession. Martial law was imposed. & General Dyre took command.


The Indian National Congress declared a nationwide strike on April 6, 1919, and many Indians started boycotting British goods and services. There were strikes, clashes with the police, and attacks on government buildings.

What was the Jallianwala Bagh massacre?

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place on 13 April 1919. On that day, a large crowd assembled in Jallianwala Bagh to protest against the Rowlatt Act & to attend the Baisakhi fair. General Dyer opened fire on the crowd. Hundred people were killed & thousands were injured.

What is the Khilafat  Movement?

The Khilafat Movement began in 1919 and lasted until 1924. The movement was led by prominent Muslim leaders such as the Ali Brothers- Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali to protest against the insulting of the Ottoman Caliphate by the Allied Powers after the First World War.
Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat Movement as an opportunity to build unity between Hindus and Muslims and to launch a broader mass against British rule in India.

What was the Non-Cooperation Movement?

The Non-cooperation Movement was an Indian National Movement. It created feelings of nationalism among the people of India. It was launched on 5th September 1920 by the Indian National Congress (INC) under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.

In September 1920, in the Congress session in Calcutta, the party introduced the Non-Cooperation program. According to this Movement, The Indians were proposed –

  • To surrender titles awarded by the British government.
  • To boycott Civil Services, the army, police, courts and schools, and foreign goods.
  • To refuse to pay taxes to the British government.
  • To promote Hindu-Muslim unity and communal harmony in India.
  • To spread public opinion to get Indian independence and to create a mass movement against British colonial rule.
  • It taught Indians a new self-respect, which could be content with nothing less than self-government.

What were the consequences of the Non-Cooperation Movement?

The Non-Cooperation Movement helped to create a sense of national identity among Indians. It brought political awareness to the masses. It helped to establish the Indian National Congress as a mass political party. The movement helped to establish Mahatma Gandhi as a leading figure in the Indian independence movement, and he became known as the “Father of the Nation.”
The movement was called off by Mahatma Gandhi in 1922 due to the Chauri Chaura incident, in which a group of protesters burned a police station and killed several police officers.

What is the Simon Commission 1928?

The Simon Commission was set up to look at the functions of the constitutional system in India. It was headed by Sir John Simon. It came to India in 1928. There were no Indian members in it. All were the Britishers. All Indian parties opposed it and gave the slogan ‘Go back, Simon.’
In October 1929, the viceroy, Lord Irwin suggested the ‘Dominion Status and Round Table Conference’ for the future constitution of India.
Poorna Swaraj: In December 1929, in Lahore Session, Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru formalized the demand of Poorna Swaraj ( Full independence) and declared that 26 January 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day.

Dandi March or Salt Law: What, Why, When, and How?

Salt was the basic need for every house but the British imposed a heavy tax on it.
Gandhiji started the Dandi March to make or sell salt on March 12 March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad to Dandi in Gujarat. There were 71 volunteers in it. They walked for 24 days, about 10 miles per day. They reached Dandi on 6 April 1930 and violated the law and manufactured salt.

The Dandi March and the Salt Satyagraha marked a turning point in the Indian independence movement, and the civil disobedience campaign eventually led to the independence of India in 1947.

What is Civil Disobedience?

The Civil Disobedience Movement was an Indian National Movement. It was launched in 1930 after breaking the salt law as the British government did not give any response to Gandhi’s demands. Salt began to be manufactured in many areas. People boycotted foreign clothes. Peasants refused to pay taxes. Many officials resigned.

Gandhiji was leading this Indian National Movement peacefully. But The British Government arrested Gandhiji, Pt. Nehru and many other important leaders suppressed the movement. They arrested about 90,000 people and banned 67 newspapers. They beat women and children. Many people were killed.

Gandhiji did not want violence. He wanted it peacefully. So he called off the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931 and signed a pact ‘ Gandhi Irwin Pact’.

What is the QUIT INDIA Movement?

The Quit India Movement was an Indian National Movement that was launched on 8 August 1942 under the leadership of Gandhiji.
Its aim was the complete withdrawal of British Rule from India. The historic ‘Quit India’ Resolution was passed on 14 July 1942 demanding the immediate transfer of power to India and quitting India.

During this movement, Gandhiji gave the slogan ‘Do or Die’. People observed hartals and demonstrations. Processions were accomplished through national songs and slogans. All ordinary people like students, workers, peasants, and women participated in the Indian National Movement.

Failure of The Quit India Movement

  • Many leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawahar Lal Nehru, etc. were arrested.
  • The upper class of India like merchants, princes, landlords, and mill owners did not support this Indian National movement.
  • There was no coordination among the Satyagrahis.
  • Muslim community didn’t participate in it.
  • The British army was more powerful than the demonstrators.
  • They crushed the demonstrators with lathi charges and fired.


The Quit India Movement became a large Indian National Movement.
The British were panicked and feared.
They came to know that their days were numbered now.
At last, on 15 August 1947, the British transferred the powers to Indians. 

FAQs | Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes

1. What is Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes?

Nationalism in India refers to the movement that aims to unite the diverse people of India in a common national identity and achieve political, economic, and cultural sovereignty.

2. Who were the key figures in the Indian nationalist movement?

The key figures in the Indian nationalist movement were Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai, etc.

3. What were the main goals of the Indian nationalist movement?

The main goals of the Indian nationalist movement were the following:
a) To achieve independence from British colonial rule.
b) To establish a self-governing Indian state, where Indians could have control over their own political and economic affairs.
c) To get civil rights such as the right to free speech, free assembly, and the right to vote.
d) To promote the use of Indian-made goods and support local industries.
e) To unite the diverse communities of India in a common national identity without any discrimination.

4. What is nationalism in Europe’s Class 10 explanation?

Nationalism in Europe means a strong sense of faithfulness and devotion to one’s nation. During the 19th century, people in Europe began to identify themselves based on their language, culture, history, and region. Nationalism played an important role in the unification of countries like Italy and Germany.

5. What was the nationalism movement in India?

Indian nationalism started in the late nineteenth century. The Revolt of 1857 marked the beginning of the fight for independence from the oppression of the British Empire. The Revolt of 1857 comprised the first war of independence of India.
Later on, some prominent leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Subhash Chandra Bose sought to unite Indians for self-rule.

6. What are the main causes of nationalism?

The main causes of nationalism are:
Historical: the desire to preserve and promote a sense of identity of culture, language, and traditions among a group of people.
Political: The response to political oppression, colonialism, or foreign domination can be Nationalism.
Economic: Inequalities in economic wealth, resources, and opportunities can contribute to nationalist sentiment.

7. Why did nationalism emerge in India?

The rise of nationalism in India was due to the oppressive policies and exploitation of the British Empire. Nationalism in India aimed at uniting diverse communities, opposing colonialism, and establishing a sovereign nation where Indians could rule themselves.

8. What was the difference between nationalism in Europe and nationalism in India Class 10?

1. Nationalism in Europe emerged in the 19th century, while in India in the early 20th century.
2. nationalism in Europe aimed to integrate various fragmented states and territories into unified nation-states while in India to achieve full independence from British colonial rule.
3. Europe’s nationalism was based on language, culture, and historical heritage within communities while In India, it was based on different religions, languages, and cultural traditions.
4. Nationalist movements in Europe used political, diplomatic, and military strategies to achieve their objectives while in India, nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, and mass mobilization were used to get independence.

9. What is the spirit of nationalism in Class 10?

The spirit of nationalism in class 10 means the feeling of pride, loyalty, and dedication towards one’s country which encourages the students to actively participate in the development and progress of their nation& it promotes unity, harmony, and a sense of belonging among the students.

10. What factors give rise to nationalism?

History, cultural traditions, and a sense of heritage, Language, and Literature gave rise to nationalism.


The Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the various aspects of the national movements before the freedom of India. By studying and practising these notes, students can enhance their knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and perform better in their exams. If you have any other queries about Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes and Ncert book important questions, feel free to reach us so that we can get back to you at the earliest possible.

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