Welcome to the exciting world of geography! In this post, we will provide you the Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Notes a comprehensive summing-up of the chapter & the role of forests and wildlife in the country’s biodiversity and the need to protect them for future generations, the importance of forests and wildlife, and the measures taken by the government and various organizations for the conservation of forests and wildlife in India. Forests and wildlife are the priceless treasures of our country. You will learn about the different types of wildlife found in these forests, such as tigers, elephants, deer, and monkeys, among others.
Introduction Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Notes
Forests and wildlife resources are important to the ecological balance and the livelihood of people in India. India is home to a diverse range of different types of forests which provide habitats for numerous species of flora and fauna. Learn about natural resources, human-made resources, and the importance of utilizing them sustainably. Discover how resources shape the economy and societies.
Flora and Fauna in India
India is a country with a rich diversity of flora and fauna. There is a wide range of plant and animal life due to the varied climate and topography of the country. The flora of India has more than 47,000 plant species like the Neelakurinji flower, which blooms only once in twelve years. The fauna of India includes iconic species like the Bengal tiger, Indian elephant, Indian rhinoceros, Asiatic lion, and numerous species of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.
Classification of species
We can classify different categories of existing Flora & Fauna species as follows. It is based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN).
1. Normal species
Species that are commonly found in a particular region and their populations are stable. In other words, they are not endangered such as the banyan tree, neem tree, cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
2. Endangered species
Species of flora and fauna are at risk of extinction due to various factors such as habitat loss, overexploitation, pollution,& climate change such as black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion-tailed macaque, sangria, etc.
3. Vulnerable species
Species of flora and fauna are at risk of becoming endangered if their populations continue to decline. These species have a higher risk of extinction than normal species such as Indian sandalwood, Sheesham, blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
4. Rare species
Species of flora and fauna that are very uncommon in a particular region. They have very small populations, and their numbers are declining, making them vulnerable to extinction such as the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill, etc.
5. Endemic species
Species of flora and fauna that are unique to a particular region and are not found anywhere in the world. They have adapted to the local environmental conditions, and their distribution is limited to a specific area such as the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh.
6. Extinct species
Species of flora and fauna that no longer exist on Earth. They are completely gone, and their populations cannot be recovered such as the Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
What are the negative factors that cause such fearful depletion of the flora and fauna?
There are several negative factors that cause the depletion of flora and fauna, leading to their extinction. Some of these factors are:
1. Habitat Loss
Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and land-use changes have led to the destruction of natural habitats.
2. Climate Change
Changes in climate patterns have resulted in the decline of flora and fauna, as they have not been able to adapt to the changing environmental conditions.
Overexploitation of natural resources, including timber, wildlife, and fisheries, has resulted in the depletion of these resources and caused the loss of many species.
Pollution, including air, water, and soil pollution, has unfavorably affected flora and fauna.
5. Human-Wildlife Conflicts
Human populations continue to grow which leads to the killing of wild animals, the destruction of their habitats, and the loss of biodiversity.
6. Illegal Wildlife Trade
Many species of wildlife are killed for their valuable parts, including ivory, rhino horn, and tiger bones.
Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India
India has a rich variety of flora and fauna, but many species are threatened with extinction due to human activities such as deforestation, poaching, and habitat destruction. To conserve the forest and wildlife resources, the Indian government has implemented several measures-
- The Indian government has established protected areas, such as national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and biosphere reserves, to conserve the flora and fauna.
- The Indian government has implemented several forest conservation programs such as Joint Forest Management, National Afforestation Program, and Forest Conservation Act, to prevent deforestation and encourage reforestation.
- The Indian government has implemented some wildlife conservation programs, like Project Tiger, Project Elephant, and Project Rhino, to protect endangered species and their habitats.
- Some laws have been enacted to protect wildlife, such as the Wildlife Protection Act (1972 ), Forest Conservation Act, and the Indian Forest Act, to protect the forest and wildlife resources.
- The Indian government has launched several awareness and education campaigns to aware people of the importance of conserving forest and wildlife resources.
Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources
Forest and wildlife resources in India can be classified into different categories based on their conservation status. Some of the common classifications are the following:
These are forests that are owned by the government and are managed for the purpose of producing timber and other forest products. About more than half of the total forest cover in India has been declared as Reserved Forests. The Forest Department is responsible to manage these forests.
These are forests that are owned by the government and are managed for the purpose to protect wildlife and their habitat, and to maintain the ecological balance. About one-third of the total forest area is protected forest.
These are forests that are not classified as reserved or protected forests and belong to the government and local communities both.
Community and Conservation
Local communities in India have been traditionally dependent on forest resources for their livelihoods, so they have an interest in their conservation but they are struggling to conserve these resources in many ways.
- In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers, and environmental activists have been fighting against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act for many years. This area is home to many endangered species, such as the Royal Bengal tiger.
- In the Alwar district of Rajasthan, the inhabitants of five villages have declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’. They have set up their own rules and regulations to protect the forest and wildlife from any outside encroachments. No one is allowed for hunting in these areas.
- The Chipko movement in the Himalayas was a successful attempt to resist deforestation in several areas. The local communities hugged trees to prevent them from being cut down. The movement helped to lead to community afforestation. Local communities were encouraged to plant more trees to prevent soil erosion and restore degraded forests. This movement was launched by Sunderlal Bahuguna.
- The Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya are farmers and citizen groups that have shown the possibility of crop production without the use of chemicals. They have shown that such practices are possible and economically viable.
- The Joint Forest Management (JFM) program,( 1990), is one of the most successful community-based conservation programs in India. Under this program, local communities protect and manage forests, and they receive a share of the revenue from the sale of forest products. This program has helped in reducing deforestation and forest degradation in some states in India.
What are the economic benefits of forest and wildlife resources in India?
Forest and wildlife resources provide timber, medicinal plants, fruits, and nuts. Wildlife tourism also generates significant revenue for the country, with several national parks and wildlife reserves attracting thousands of tourists each year. Forests help to regulate water resources, prevent soil erosion, and mitigate the impact of natural disasters such as floods and landslides.
What is the Chipko movement?
The Chipko movement was a movement in India in the 1970s that aimed to protect trees and forests from deforestation. Women from rural areas in the Himalayas would hug trees to prevent loggers from cutting them down, which gave rise to the name “Chipko,” meaning “to hug” in Hindi.
What are the major policies and programs that the government has implemented to protect forests and wildlife in India?
The Indian government has implemented some policies and programs to protect forests and wildlife, such as:
1. Project Tiger (1973)
2. National Afforestation Program (1985)
3. National Forest Policy (1988)
4. Forest Conservation Act (1980)
5. Joint Forest Management Program (1988)
6. National Wildlife Action Plan (2002-2016)
7. Green India Mission (2014)
How can we improve the management and protection of forests and wildlife in India?
We can improve the management and protection of forests and wildlife in India in the following ways
1. To promote community-based conservation and involve local communities in forest management.
2. To promote the use of non-timber forest products.
3. To increase awareness about the importance of conservation.
4. To prevent illegal logging, hunting, and poaching.
5. To develop eco-tourism activities.
What is the impact of climate change on forest and wildlife resources in India?
Climate change has an impact on forest and wildlife resources in India. High temperatures, changing precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events like droughts and floods can affect forest ecosystems and lead to the loss of habitat and biodiversity.
Throughout this post, we provided Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Notes to students with a comprehensive understanding of the valuable ecological, economic, and cultural benefits of forests & wildlife resources. By studying and practicing these NCERT notes, students can enhance their knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and perform better in their exams. If you have any other queries about Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Geography Chapter 2 Notes feel free to reach us so that we can revert back to you at the earliest possible. Happy learning and best of luck on your future endeavors!