Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes | Easy Concept

Minerals and energy resources play an important role in economic development and human welfare. Minerals are found in the Earth’s crust that are mined and used for many purposes. In this chapter, Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes you will learn about minerals & energy resources, their classification, how to conserve minerals, different types of, and how we can conserve these energy resources. Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 notes will also assist students to prepare an internal assessment for their Social Science exam.


Minerals and energy resources are an essential part of our lives. They play an important role in economic development and human welfare. Minerals are found in the Earth’s crust that is mined and used for many purposes, such as construction, transportation, electronics, and manufacturing. Energy resources are converted into useful work, such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable energy sources like wind, solar, and hydropower.

What is a Mineral?

Geologists define mineral as a “homogeneous, it is a naturally occurring inorganic solid substance with a specific chemical composition and crystal structure.
They are formed by geological processes such as the cooling and crystallization of molten rock, precipitation from a solution, or deposition from a gas.

Mode of Occurrence of Minerals

Minerals are found and distributed in the Earth’s crust. They are usually found in “ores”. The term ore contains a high enough concentration of valuable metal or mineral. There are several modes of occurrence of minerals:

  • Igneous minerals are formed from molten magma or lava. They may occur in cracks, crevices, faults, or joints such as granite, basalt, and pumice.
  • Sedimentary minerals are formed by the deposition of water, wind, or other geological processes. They occur in beds or layers such as sandstone, limestone, and shale.
  • Metamorphic minerals are formed by the alteration of pre-existing minerals due to heat, and pressure. They may occur in cracks, crevices, faults, or joints such as slate, marble, and schist.
  • The decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents can lead to the formation of minerals. These minerals are formed between the rock and water.
  • Minerals can occur as alluvial deposits, which are formed by the erosion and transport of rocks and minerals by water or wind. These deposits are found in riverbeds, valley floors, and the base of hills.
  • The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals such as magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium, and chlorine.

Classification of Minerals

Minerals can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition, crystal structure, and mode of occurrence. Look at a glance at the classification of minerals through the below concept map:

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Metallic Minerals

The minerals contain metallic elements, such as iron, copper, gold, silver, aluminum, etc. These minerals have high economic value due to their unique physical and chemical properties. They are classified into three types:

Ferrous Minerals

Ferrous minerals are metallic minerals that contain iron. These minerals are important sources of iron, which is used in the production of steel and other alloys. Some examples of the ferrous minerals are the following:

Iron Ore
  • India is one of the largest producers and exporters of iron ore in the world.
  • It is the basic mineral & the backbone of industrial development.
  • Some types of iron ore are strongly magnetic, such as magnetite which is the finest iron ore with a very high content of iron, up to 70%,
  • Hematite is of another type iron ore. It contains 50 to 60% iron.
  • The major iron ore belts in India are:
    i) Odisha-Jharkhand belt in Odisha
    ii) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur belt in Chhattisgarh & Maharashtra
    iii) Ballari-Chitradurga-Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru belt in Karnataka
    iv) Maharashtra-Goa belt in Goa.
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
  • Manganese is used in steel production. Nearly 10 kg of manganese is required to manufacture 1 tonne of steel.
  • It is used in the production of various types of batteries such as alkaline, zinc-carbon, and lithium-ion batteries.
  • It is used in the production of a variety of chemicals, including fertilizers, pigments, and disinfectants.
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Non-Ferrous Minerals

The minerals do not contain iron as their primary constituent. They are used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications. Some examples of non-ferrous minerals are the following:

  • It is a soft, malleable metal that is valued for its high electrical conductivity.
  • It is used in a wide range of applications such as electrical wiring, plumbing, and electronics.
  • The major leading producers of copper states in India are:
    i)The Balaghat mines in Madhya Pradesh
    ii) the Khetri mines in Rajasthan
    iii) the Singhbhum district of Jharkhand
  • It is a sedimentary rock that is rich in aluminum minerals.
  • It is the primary source of aluminum metal.
  • It is formed through the weathering and erosion of aluminum-rich rocks over millions of years.
  • It contains 30-55% alumina along with various impurities such as silica, iron oxide, and titanium dioxide.
  • It is used in the production of aluminum metal, manufacturing of other products such as cement, and chemicals.
  • The major regions of bauxite in India are
    i) The Amarkantak plateau
    ii) Maikal hills, and
    iii) The plateau region of Bilaspur-Katni.

Precious Minerals

  • These are highly valued for their beauty.
  • These are used in jewelry and other decorative objects.
  • The most common precious minerals are diamond, gold, silver, and Platinum.

Non-Metallic Minerals

The minerals that do not contain metal are called non-metallic minerals. They are more abundant than metallic minerals and have a wide range of uses in industry and everyday life. Some examples of non-metallic minerals are Limestone, Gypsum, Salt, Clay, and Mica.

  • Mica is a mineral that occurs in thin, sheet-like layers.
  • It is used in the production of electrical insulators, paint, and other products.
  • The major leading producers of mica in India are-
    i) The northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau.
    ii) Hazaribagh belt of Jharkhand
    iii) Rajasthan & Andhra Pradesh
Rock Minerals

Rock minerals are an important natural resource that has a wide range of uses in industry and everyday life. Some common examples of rock minerals are granite, basalt, sandstone, and limestone.

  • Limestone is a sedimentary rock that is composed of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonates.
  • It is used in the production of cement, and concrete, and for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
  • It is the basic raw material for the cement industry.

How Can We Conservation Of Minerals?

Minerals are a non-renewable resource. It takes thousands of years for the formation and concentration of minerals and their extraction and use have environmental and social impacts. So, it’s important to take the necessary steps to conserve minerals.

  • We can reduce our consumption of minerals by reusing and recycling them.
  • We can reduce the amount of waste generated.
  • We should save energy resources to reduce the need for mineral extraction.
  • we should use alternative materials and technologies.
  • We should Educate people about the importance of conserving minerals.

What Are Energy Resources?

Energy resources are natural resources that can be converted into usable forms of energy to power our homes, industries, transportation, and other activities. They can be classified into two categories:
i) Conventional Sources: These include fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as nuclear energy.
ii) Non-Conventional Sources: These include solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass energy.

Conventional Sources of Energy

The sources of energy that have been used for a long time and are still used today such as firewood, cattle dung cake, coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electricity. Let’s discuss some of them.


  • India is one of the world’s largest coal producers.
  • It is used for generating electricity that is supplied to the industry as well as for domestic needs.
  • The majority of coal production in India comes from the states of Jharkhand, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and West Bengal.
  • Coal is classified into three main types based on its properties and energy content. These three types of coal are:
  • It is the highest grade of coal, and it has the highest carbon content.
  • It is hard, dense, and burns with a clean flame.
  • It is the most common type of coal.
  • It has a high heat content and is used for power generation and industrial processes.
  • It is the lowest grade of coal and has the lowest heat content.
  • It is used for power generation.
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes


  • India is the third-largest consumer of oil in the world.
  • Petroleum is used as fuel for transportation, heat, and lighting, providing lubrication for various types of machinery.
  • Petroleum refineries in India act as a “nodal industry” for synthetic textile, fertilizer, and chemical industries.
  • The major petroleum production areas in India are Mumbai, Gujarat & Assam.

i) Mumbai-The Mumbai High oil field is the largest producing oil field in the country. It produces about 63% of the total production of petroleum in the country.
ii) Gujarat-Ankaleshwar is the most important field of petroleum in Gujarat. It produces 18% of petroleum in India.
iii) Assam-It is the oldest oil-producing State of India. The Important oilfields in Assam are Digboi, Naharkatiya, and Moran-Hugrijan Its share is 16% of the total production of petroleum in the country.


Electricity is generated from coal, natural gas, hydro, nuclear, wind, and solar. In India, it is generated mainly from coal & water.

HydroPower Electricity
  • The electricity that is generated by running water is known as Hydro Electricity.
  • It is a renewable resource of energy.
  • The major projects in Hydroelectricity in India are
    i) The Bhakra Nangal dam in Punjab
    ii) Damodar Valley Project in Kolkata
    iii)The Kopili Hydel Project in Assam
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
Thermal Power
  • The electricity that is generated by burning fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas is known as Thermal Power Electricity.
  • It is a non-renewable resource of energy.
  • The major thermal power regions in India are
    i) Namrup in Assam
    ii) Singrauli in Uttar Pradesh
    iii) Ramagundam in Telangana

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-conventional sources of energy are known as renewable sources of energy. It can be used to generate power without depleting finite resources. Some non-conventional sources of energy are Nuclear or Atomic Energy, Solar Energy, wind energy, biogas, tidal energy, and geothermal energy. Let’s discuss them.

Nuclear or Atomic Energy

  • Energy is produced through the process of nuclear fission or fusion.
  • Nuclear fission means splitting the nucleus of an atom.
  • Nuclear fusion means combining two or more atomic nuclei.
  • The major Nuclear Power Plants in India are-
    i) Narora in Uttar Pradesh
    ii) Kakrapara in Gujarat
    iii) Tarapur in Maharashtra
    iv) Kalpakkam in Tamilnadu

Solar Energy

  • Energy is obtained from the sun through the use of solar panels, and solar thermal technology.
  • It is converted into electricity.
  • The major Solar Power Plants in India are-
    i) Bhadla Solar Park in Rajasthan
    ii) Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park in Andhra Pradesh
    iii) Rewa Ultra Mega Solar Park in Madhya Pradesh

Wind Power

  • Energy is obtained from the wind through the use of wind turbines.
  • It converts kinetic energy into electrical energy.
  • The major wind power plants in India are:
    i) Muppandal Wind Farm in Tamil Nadu (The largest wind farm cluster)
    ii) Jaisalmer Wind Park in Rajasthan
    iii) Satara Wind Farm in Maharashtra
    iv) Kutch Wind Farm in Gujarat
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes


  • Energy is obtained from organic matter, such as wood, agricultural waste, animal waste, sewage, or food waste.
  • It can be used as a renewable energy source to generate electricity.
  • Some biogas power plants in India are:
    i) The 12 MW Shivalik Biogas Power Plant in Punjab,
    ii) The 1.2 MW biogas power plant in Tamil Nadu,
    iii) The 1 MW biogas power plant in Maharashtra.
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Tidal Energy

  • Energy is obtained from the movement of ocean currents, waves, or tides.
  • It can be operated through the use of various technologies to generate electricity.
  • The major Tidal Power stations in India are
    i) The Gulf of Khambhat,
    ii) The Gulf of Kachchh in Gujarat on the western coast
    iii) The Gangetic Delta in the Sunderban regions of West Bengal

Geo-Thermal Energy

  • Geothermal power is a form of renewable energy that is generated from the heat of the Earth’s core.
  • It is used to generate electricity.
  • The major regions of Geo Thermal Power in India are-
    i) The Puga Valley in Ladakh,
    ii) The Manikaran Valley in Himachal Pradesh
    iii) The Tattapani in Chhattisgarh.

Conservation of Energy Resources

Today, Energy resources are used everywhere, from homes and buildings to transportation, industries, and agriculture. So it is essential to conserve energy resources to protect the environment, promote economic benefits, and support sustainable development. There are some ways to conserve energy resources-

  • Reduce heating and cooling costs by properly insulating homes and buildings.
  • Turn off lights and electronics when not in use.
  • Replace traditional light bulbs with LED bulbs.
  • Use public transportation, walking, or cycling instead of driving alone.
  • Use renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and geothermal.
  • Use energy-efficient appliances.


The Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the valuable resources of minerals & energy. By studying and practicing these NCERT notes, students can enhance their knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and perform better in their exams. You can access them by visiting the website. If you have any other queries about Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes feel free to reach us so that we can revert back to us at the earliest possible


1. What are mineral and energy resources short note?

Mineral and energy resources are natural resources found in the earth’s crust that are extracted and utilized for various purposes. Such as coal, water, wind, etc.

2. What are energy minerals in Class 10 geography?

In Class 10 geography, energy minerals refer to minerals that are used as a source of energy, such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and uranium. These minerals are obtained from the earth and used for various purposes, such as electricity generation, transportation, and heating.

3. What are the 3 types of mineral resources?

The three types of mineral resources are metallic, non-metallic, and energy minerals.

4. Where minerals are found?

Minerals are found in the earth’s crust. They can be found in various types of rocks and soils, as well as in mineral deposits such as veins, lodes, and placers. Mineral exploration and mining activities are done to extract these resources from the earth.

5. Is diamond a mineral resource?

Yes, diamond is a mineral resource. It is composed of carbon. It is one of the hardest minerals. It is found in kimberlite pipes and alluvial deposits and is mainly used in jewelry, cutting tools, and other industrial applications.

Rate this post

Leave a Comment