Ncert Solution Class 7 Geography Chapter 1

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 “Environment” is an important chapter that introduces students to the basic understanding of the environment, its importance, and the role of humans in shaping it. The chapter covers various aspects of the environment, such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Through this chapter, students will gain knowledge and understanding of the environment and its significance, and they will be able to learn the exercises & test questions easily. This post is prepared by an expert with the experience than 20 years.

Concept Map

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1
Class 7 Geography Chapter 1

Key Words

BioticThe narrow zone where the land water and air interact.
AbioticThe environment relates to non-living things.
BiosphereOrganisms that make their food from their surroundings.
AutotrophsOrganisms that can not make their food & depend on other organisms.
HeterotrophsOrganisms that can not make their own food & depend on other organisms.
DecomposersOrganisms that eat dead and decaying plants and animals.
Natural HabitatA place with distinct physical features, climate, and vegetation where typical communities of living things survive.
UnsustainableNot capable of continuing at the same rate or level.
EnvironmentThe surroundings within which an organism exists.
EcosystemA natural unit that consists of living & non-living elements.

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Questions and Answers


1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is an ecosystem?
Answer: An ecosystem is a community of living organisms and their physical environment, interacting as a system. It includes all living things, such as plants, animals, and microorganisms, as well as non-living components, such as air, water, and soil. These components interact with each other through various processes.

(ii) What do you mean by natural environment?
Answer: Natural environment means all the non-human-made elements and features of the Earth’s surface, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere.

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1
Class 7 Geography Chapter 1

(iii) Which are the major components of the environment?
Answer: The major components of the environment are the following:

  1. Atmosphere (air)
  2. Hydrosphere (water)
  3. Lithosphere (land)
  4. Biosphere (living organisms)

(iv) Give four examples of a human-made environment.
Answer: Four examples of human-made environments are:

  1. Buildings (e.g. roads, bridges)
  2. Agricultural fields and farms
  3. Industrial facilities (e.g., factories, power plants)
  4. Landfills and waste disposal sites

(v) What is lithosphere?
Answer: The lithosphere is the solid, outermost layer of the Earth. It is made up of rocks, minerals, and soils.
It is divided into tectonic plates that move and interact with one another, causing earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountains.

(vi) Which are the two major components of the biotic environment?
Answer: The two major components of the biotic environment are:

  1. Plants (Flora)
  2. animals (Fauna)

(vii) What is a biosphere?
Answer: The biosphere is the narrow zone where the land water and air interact. It is the layer of life on Earth, where all living organisms interact with one another and their physical environment.

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1

Q 2. Tick the correct answer.

(i) Which is not a natural ecosystem?
(a) Desert
(b) Aquarium
(c) Forest

Answer: (b) Aquarium

(ii) Which is not a component of the human environment?
(a) Land
(b) Religion
(c) Community

Answer: (a) Land

(iii) Which is a human-made environment?
(a) Mountain
(b) Sea
(c) Road

Answer: (c) Road

(iv) Which is a threat to the environment?
(a) Growing plant
(b) Growing population
(c) Growing crops

Answer: (b) Growing population

Q 3. Match the following.

(i) Biosphere(c) the gravitational force of the earth
(ii) Atmosphere(b) domain of water
(iii) Hydrosphere(e) the narrow zone where the land water and the air interacts
(iv) Environment(d) our surroundings
(e) the narrow zone where the land water and the air interacts
(f) relation between the organisms and their surroundings


(i) Biosphere(e) narrow zone where the land water and the air interacts
(ii) Atmosphere(a) a blanket of air which surrounds the earth
(iii) Hydrosphere(b) domain of water
(iv) Environment(d) our surroundings

Q 4. Give reasons.

(i) Man modifies his environment.
Answer: Man modifies his environment to meet his needs and desires. He can change and adapt to his surroundings e.g. he builds shelters to live in from natural materials, creates irrigation systems, and constructs roads & modifies the environment to make his life easier and more comfortable.

(ii) Plants and animals depend on each other.
Answer: Plants and animals depend on each other because Plants produce oxygen and food through photosynthesis, which animals need to survive, while animals provide carbon dioxide and nutrients that plants need to grow. The relationship between plants and animals is essential for the balance of the ecosystem.

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Extra Questions and Answers

1. Name the three realms of the earth.
Answer: The three realms of the Earth are:

  1. Lithosphere (Land)
  2. Hydrosphere – (water)
  3. Atmosphere – (Air)

2. What is the composition of air?
Answer: Air is composed mainly of-
nitrogen (78%),
oxygen (21%),
carbon dioxide (0.04%)
argon (0.93%)
and a small number of other gases.

3. What are the components of the environment?
Answer: The components of the environment can be classified into two categories:
i) Biotic components
ii) Abiotic components

4. What are the main constituents of the biotic and abiotic environment?
Answer: The main constituents of the biotic environment are living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.
The main constituents of the abiotic environment are non-living components, such as air, water, soil, sunlight, and minerals.

5. How is the atmosphere important for the life forms on Earth?
Answer: The atmosphere is important for the life forms on Earth because it provides vital gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, that are necessary for respiration and photosynthesis, respectively. It also protects life on Earth from harmful solar radiation.

6. What is the extent of the biosphere?
Answer: The extent of the biosphere is part of the Earth where life exists. It covers about 75% of the Earth’s surface, with a total volume of about 1.2 billion cubic kilometres.

7. What leads to global warming?
Answer: Global warming is led by the buildup of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide.

8. How does the atmosphere act as a blanket for our earth?
Answer: The atmosphere acts as a blanket for our Earth by trapping heat from the sun and preventing it from escaping into space.

9. What is the utility of lithosphere?
Answer: The lithosphere provides us with fertile soil for agriculture, minerals for industry and construction, and fossil fuels for energy production.

10. What holds the atmosphere around the Earth?
Answer: The atmosphere is held around the Earth by the force of gravity, which pulls the gases toward the surface.

Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 Question Answer

1. What do you understand by global & regional ecosystems?
Answer: Global ecosystems
It is the complex interconnections between all living organisms and their environment on a global scale, including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect their interactions. For example- the oceanic ecosystem, encompasses all the world’s oceans and their interconnections with other ecosystems, such as the atmosphere and land-based ecosystems.

Regional ecosystems
It is the different types of ecosystems found in specific geographical regions, such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, and wetlands. These ecosystems are shaped by their unique physical and environmental conditions and the interactions between the biotic and abiotic components within them.

2. Enumerate the main differences between the two main components of the environment.
Answer: The main differences between these two components are:

Biotic componentsAbiotic components
1. They are living organisms.1. They are non-living elements.
2. They can grow, reproduce, and interact with each other.2. They can not grow, or reproduce.
3. They are dependent on abiotic components for survival.3. They are not dependent on biotic components.
4. They have the ability to adapt and evolve.4. They can adapt and evolve.

3. Why do you think human beings need to work towards sustainable development?
Answer: Human beings need to work towards sustainable development for the welfare of future generations & for maintaining the ecological balance.
Sustainable development seeks to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

4. How can we create a sustainable society?
Answer: We can create a sustainable society by following some steps:

  • by conserving energy, reducing waste
  • by creating incentives and regulations
  • by Investing in renewable energy
  • by conserving forests, oceans, wetlands, etc.

5. Identify some human activities that cause environmental degradation.
Some human activities that cause environmental degradation are –

  • Deforestation,
  • Pollution from industrial activities, transportation, and waste disposal.
  • Overfishing and destructive fishing practices
  • Greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels
  • Forest fires
  • Pollution of land, water & air.

Long Questions Answers

1. Explain how the biosphere has made the Earth a unique planet.
Answer: The biosphere has made the Earth a unique planet because
i) Earth is the only known planet that supports life. It has water & oxygen which are necessary for survival.
ii) The biosphere creates and maintains the Earth’s oxygen-rich atmosphere which is essential for the survival of many species, including humans.
iii) The biosphere provides a favourable climate to support life.
iv) The biosphere supports the evolution and persistence of life.
v) The biosphere contributes to the incredible biodiversity of the planet.

2. Describe the three components that make up the abiotic environment.
Answer: Three main components make up the abiotic environment:
1. Atmosphere: The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the Earth, consisting of main nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other trace gases. It provides the air that living organisms breathe and protects the Earth from harmful radiation from the sun. It regulates the Earth’s climate by trapping heat and other gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane.

2. Hydrosphere: The hydrosphere means all the water on Earth such as oceans, lakes, rivers, groundwater, and water vapour. Water is essential for the survival of living organisms. The hydrosphere regulates the Earth’s climate and weather patterns.

3. Lithosphere: The lithosphere is the solid outer layer of the Earth, which includes the crust and upper mantle. It provides the physical substrate on which ecosystems are built, and it is the source of many of the essential elements and minerals that living organisms need to survive. The lithosphere also interacts with the other components of the abiotic environment, such as the atmosphere and hydrosphere.

3. How have human beings adapted to the environment to fulfil their needs?
Answer: Human beings have adapted to the environment in various ways to fulfil their needs.
i) They have built different types of shelters to protect themselves from the natural elements.
ii) They have learned to cultivate crops and raise livestock by using various farming techniques, such as crop rotation, irrigation, and the use of fertilizers.
iii) They have adapted clothing that provides warmth and protection from the harsh climate of the environment.
iv) They have developed various modes of transportation to travel long distances and access resources.
v) They have also adapted to their environment by harnessing different sources of energy.

FAQ | Class 7 Geography Chapter 1

1. What is ecosystem class 7 geography chapter 1?

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals, and microbes) interacting with each other and their physical environment.

2. What are the types of ecosystems?

There are several types of ecosystems.
iv) Some of the main types of ecosystems are-
i) Forest Ecosystems
ii) Grassland Ecosystems:
iii) Desert Ecosystems
iv) Aquatic Ecosystems
v) Tundra Ecosystems

3. What are the 3 types of Environment?

The three types of environments are:
I) Natural Environment
ii) Human Environment
iii) Human-Made Environment

4. What is the human environment?

The human environment refers to the physical, social, and cultural conditions created by humans in which they live, work, and interact.

5. How do we save the environment?

We can save the environment in the following ways:
i) Walk or cycle rather than drive
ii) Carpool
iii) Turn off lights when not required
iv) Use renewable energy
v) reuse carrier bags


The Class 7 Geography Chapter 1 provides students with a comprehensive understanding of the various aspects of the environment. By studying and practising these Ncert solutions and extra Questions, students can enhance their knowledge, improve their problem-solving skills, and perform better in their exams. You can access them by visiting the website. If you have any other queries about Class 7 Geography Chapter 1, feel free to reach us so that we can get back to you at the earliest possible.

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