Indian economy is related to primary, secondary, or tertiary sectors. In this post, we provided the Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Questions and Answers and Exercises given in the textbook along with concept maps and glossary which help in understanding the material better.
Sectors of Indian Economy Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 solutions are carefully designed for the students in a simple way to understand the answers. This will help the students to score high marks in their examinations.
Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Questions and Answers
Exercises of Class 10 Economics Chapter 2
1. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:
(i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has/has not)
(ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary/agricultural)
(iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organized/unorganized)
(iv) A _________ proportion of laborers in India are working in the unorganized sector. (large/small)
(v) Cotton is a _________ product and cloth is a _________ product. [natural /manufactured]
(vi)The activities in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors are_________ [independent/interdependent]
Answer: (i) has not
(v) natural and manufactured
2. Choose the most appropriate answer.
(a) The sectors are classified into public and private sectors on the basis of:
(i) Employment condition
(ii) The nature of the economic activity
(iii) Ownership of enterprises
(iv) Number of workers employed in the enterprise
Answer: (iii) ownership of enterprises
(b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in _________ sector.
(iv) Information technology
Answer: (i) Primary
(c) GDP is the total value of _________ produced during a particular year.
(i) All goods and services
(ii) All final goods and services
(iii) All intermediate goods and services
(iv) All intermediate and final goods and services
Answer: (ii) All final goods and services
(d) In terms of GDP the share of the tertiary sector in 2013-14 is between _________ percent.
(i) 20 to 30
(ii) 30 to 40
(iii) 50 to 60
(iv) 60 to 70
Answer: (iii) 50 to 60
3. Match the following:
|Problems faced by the farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|2. Low prices for crops||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
|3. Debt burden||(c) Procurement of food grains by the government|
|4. Procurement of food grains by the government||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|Problems faced by the farming sector||Some possible measures|
|1. Unirrigated land||(d) Construction of canals by the government|
|2. Low prices for crops||(c) Procurement of food grains by the government|
|3. Debt burden||(e) Banks to provide credit with low interest|
|4. No job in the off-season||(a) Setting up agro-based mills|
|5. Compelled to sell their grains to the local traders soon after harvest||(b) Cooperative marketing societies|
4. Find the odd one out and say why.
(i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter
Answer: The tourist Guide- because he is appointed by the Government Department.
(ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer
Answer: The Vegetable vendor is the odd one out because he comes under the primary sector, while teachers, lawyers, and doctors come under the tertiary sector.
(iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable
Answer: Cobbler is the odd one out because he works in the private sector while the postman, soldier, and police constable work for the public sector.
(iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, Jet Airways, All India Radio
Answer: Jet Airways is the odd one out because it is owned by a private company and MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, and All India Radio is owned by the Government of India.
5. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.
|Place of Work||Nature of Employment||Percentage of working People|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Own shops, offices, and clinics in|
marketplaces with formal license
|Own shops, offices, and clinics in|
marketplaces with formal license
|People working on the street,|
construction workers, domestic workers
|Working in small workshops|
usually not registered with the government
Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganized sector in this city?
|Place of Work||Nature of Employment||Percentage of working People|
|In offices and factories registered with the government||Organized||15|
|Own shops, offices, and clinics in marketplaces with formal license||Organized||15|
|People working on the street, construction workers, domestic workers||Unorganized||20|
|Working in small workshops usually not registered with the government||Unorganized||50|
The percentage of workers in the unorganized sector in this city is 70%
6. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary is useful? Explain how.
Answer: The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary, and tertiary is useful because:
- It helps to classify the different occupations followed by the people in the country
- It helps to know how much each sector contributes to the development of the country.
- It helps to tell which sector contributes the most to the GDP
- It helps to know which sector has the scope to employ more people and increase national income.
7. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues that should be examined? Discuss.
Answer: One should focus on Employment and GDP because these are the two most important factors in the development of a country. These are used to calculate a country’s overall productivity and national income. If the employment rate in a country is high then its GDP, national income, and per capita income will automatically increase. There are some other issues that should be examined such as health care facilities, Education, poverty, food products, and nutrition.
8. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice.
Answer: The work that is done by human beings for a living is classified into three sectors: primary, secondary, and tertiary.
The primary sectors: Cleaning, agriculture, mining, and fishing
The secondary sector: Manufacturing of goods
The tertiary sector: Education, banking, and transportation.
9. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples.
Answer: Those activities which help in the development of primary and secondary sectors are called tertiary activities.
The tertiary sector is different from other sectors because These activities do not produce goods but play a very important role in selling and bringing the goods produced by the primary or secondary sectors to the market.
For example, goods produced in the primary or secondary sector are transported by trucks or trains and then sold in wholesale and retail outlets. These transport facilities and shopkeepers come under the tertiary sector.
10. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.
Answer: The situation of underemployment, where people are apparently working but all of them are made to work less than their capacity, is called disguised unemployment.
In rural areas, agriculture is the main source of income. If only three people are required to work on a piece of land and instead of five people working on it, the two extra people are said to be in a situation of disguised unemployment.
In urban areas, painters, plumbers, and electricians are unable to find work on a daily basis and work below their potential so these come under disguised unemployment.
11. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.
Answer: Open unemployment: when an educated person is willing to work but is unable to get a job and work. This kind of unemployment is quite seen in urban areas.
Disguised unemployment: when a person is apparently working but is made to work less than his or her potential. This kind of employment is quite seen in villages.
12.“Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer: “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy.” I disagree because
The tertiary sector has become a major contributor to India’s economy.
It contributes significantly to the national income of India.
It is generating employment and attracting foreign investment.
It provides a wide range of job opportunities in various fields such as hospitality, finance, information technology, entertainment, and more.
13. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these?
Answer: The service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. These are:
Skilled Professionals: These have specialized skills, expertise, and education in various fields such as information technology, finance, consulting, healthcare, engineering, law, education, research, design, and more.
Unskilled Workers: These have limited formal education and training. These workers can be found in various fields such as retail, hospitality, domestic services, construction, agriculture, and certain manual labor jobs.
14. Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer.
Answer: Yes, Workers are exploited in the unorganized sector because-
- The unorganized sector is identified by small units.
- Rules and regulations are not followed.
- The jobs are low paying and not regular.
- More work is taken from them than what is paid.
- They have no provision for extra pay for overtime and no medical benefits.
- There is no job security.
15. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?
Answer: On the basis of the employment conditions, the economy can be classified into two sectors:
- Organized Sector:
i) Companies are registered with the Government of India.
ii) The rules and regulations are followed.
iii) There is security of jobs in this sector.
iv) There is a fixed time to work.
v) The employees have to be paid overtime.
vi) They have many facilities such as high salaries medical, paid leave, provident fund, and gratuity, etc.
- Unorganized Sector:
i) The unorganized sector is identified by small units.
ii) Rules and regulations are not followed.
iii) The jobs are low paying and not regular.
iv) More work is taken from them than what is paid.
v) They have no provision for extra pay for overtime and no medical benefits.
vi) There is no job security.
16. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sectors.
|Organized Sectors||Unorganized Sectors|
|These are Formal, regulated sectors with established labor laws.||These are Informal sectors without regulations.|
|Job is security and stability.||There is no job security.|
|There are high wages and better benefits.||There are low wages and no benefits.|
|There is a fixed time to work.||There is unlimited time to work.|
|There are better opportunities for growth.||There are no opportunities for growth.|
17. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.
Answer: The full form of NREGA is National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. It was introduced in 2005. It aims to ensure guaranteed 100 days of employment in a year for all those in need of work in rural areas. It also states that in case of non-provision of employment under this Act, employment wages will be given to those who remain unemployed.
18. Using examples from your area, compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors.
|Private Sectors||Public Sectors|
|Industries are owned by individuals.||Industries are owned by the Government.|
|These work to earn profits.||These work to provide facilities to the public as well as to earn profits.|
|Examples: IT companies, malls, multiplexes, etc.||Examples: Government Banks, Post Offices, municipal hospitals, and Indian railways.|
19. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.
|Well-Managed Organisation||Badly-Managed Organisation|
Answer: Try yourself
20. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.
Answer: A few examples of public sector activities are Banks, transport, irrigation, electricity, water, Public Education, healthcare service, etc.
The government has started these to meet collective needs, promote social welfare and ensure equal access to essential services and resources.
21. Explain how the public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.
Answer: The public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation in a number of ways:
i) Investment in infrastructure like roads, bridges, airports, and public transport.
ii) Funding for education and skill development programs enhances the quality and productivity of the workforce.
iii) Providing health services improves the overall health of the population.
iv) Investment in research and development (R&D) supports technological progress and innovation.
22. The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety, and health. Explain with examples.
Answer: The unorganized sector is identified by small units. Rules and regulations are not followed. More work is taken from them than what is paid. So The workers in the unorganized sector need protection on the following issues:
Wages: In the unorganized sector, the income of workers is not fixed and they can hardly meet the requirements of living a decent livelihood. So these workers should be given fair and fixed wages so that they can move forward and contribute to the growth of the country. For example – a carpenter gets wages only on the days he works and the rest of the days he is unemployed and does not earn anything.
Safety: In the unorganized sector, protection is not provided to the workers. There is no job security and anyone can be fired as per the requirement of the workers. For example – a laborer in the construction of a house has no work left after the construction is completed.
Health: In the unorganized sector, no medical security is provided to the workers. if there is an accident while working, the employer is not responsible for their health.
For example – There is no sick leave for workers working on daily wages.
23. A study in Ahmedabad found that out of 15,00,000 workers in the city, 11,00,000 worked in the unorganized sector. The total income of the city in this year (1997-1998) was Rs 60,000 million. Out of this Rs 32,000 million was generated in the organised sector. Present this data as a table. What kind of ways should be thought of for generating more employment in the city?
|Total Workers in the City||Workers in the unorganized sector||Total Income of City (1997-1998)||Income generated by the organized sector||Income generated by the unorganized sector|
|15,00,000||11,00,000||60,000 million||32,000 million||28,000 million|
The given data clearly shows that the income in the unorganized sector is about 50% of the total income of Ahmedabad. More industries should be established to increase employment opportunities for the people, proper education should be provided to all, and proper facilities should be provided to all under the public sector.
24. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:
(i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 2000 and 2013
(ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter.
(iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph?
Answer: (i) In 2000- The Primary Sector shared 22.22% of GDP.
The Secondary Sector shared 20.73% of GDP.
The Tertiary Sector shared 57.04% of GDP.
In 2013-The Primary Sector shared 13.94% of GDP.
The Secondary Sector shared 18.70% of GDP.
The Tertiary Sector shared 67.36% of GDP.
(iii) We can conclude that the share of the tertiary sector in GDP has increased by 10%, while the share of the primary sector has almost halved. The secondary sector has grown by about 2% in the last 13 years.
FAQ of Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Notes
What are the sectors of the Indian economy class 10 Economics Chapter 2 notes?
There are three sectors of Indian economy class 10- Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary.
What are primary sector class 10 notes?
The activities which are dependent on nature are called the primary sector. As agriculture, Fishing, mining, etc.
What is called the secondary sector?
The activities which are dependent on the primary sector for raw materials are called the secondary sector. As Sugar Industries and Cotton Industries.
What is called the tertiary sector?
The activities such as transport, communication, banking, and trading are called tertiary sectors.
What is the public sector?
The business or industries which are owned by the government are called public sectors. for Example Government Banks, Post Offices, municipal hospitals, and Indian railways.
Conclusion of Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 Solutions
Ncert Solution For Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 provides valuable insights and knowledge for students. By practicing, Class 10 Economics Chapter 2, students can promote better learning experiences. If you have any other queries about Class 10 Economics Chapter 2 notes, feel free to reach us so that we can revert back to you at the earliest possible.