Constitutional design means the process to create a constitution, which is a set of fundamental principles and rules of a government. Through this post, Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2, students will learn and understand the Ncert Exercises & Questions and Answers of Chapter 2 constitutional design.
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class 9 political science chapter 2 Question answer
Exercise of Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2
1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
- Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
- Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
- A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
- The Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
- Leaders of the freedom movement had a clear mind to have a democratic nation after independence.
- Members of the constituent assembly of India held the same views on the basic principles of the Constitution.
- All countries that are democratic must have a Constitution.
- A Constitution can be amended with time and the needs of the citizens on the base of a 2/3 majority in the Parliament.
2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa?
a. Between South Africa and its neighbors
b. Between men and women
c. Between the white majority and the black minority
d.Between the colored minority and the black majority
Answer. Option (d) Between the colored minority and the black majority
3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?
a. Powers of the head of the state
b. Name of the head of the state
c. Powers of the legislature
d. Name of the country
Answer. Option (b) Name of the head of the state
4. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:
|Motilal Nehru||President of the Constituent Assembly|
|B.R. Ambedkar||Member of the Constituent Assembly|
|Rajendra Prasad||Chairman of the Drafting Committee|
|Sarojini Naidu||Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928|
|Motilal Nehru||Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928|
|B.R. Ambedkar||Chairman of the Drafting Committee|
|Rajendra Prasad||President of the Constituent Assembly|
|Sarojini Naidu||Member of the Constituent Assembly|
5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following:
a. Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?
b. What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?
c. “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”. Who was he referring to?
Answer: a. Nehru used the expression “not wholly or in full measure” to redeem our pledge to dedicate ourselves to the service of the nation.
b. He wanted the makers of the Indian constitution to take a pledge of dedication to the service of India and its people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
c. He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and its meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
|Sovereign||Government will not favor any religion|
|Republic||People have the supreme right to make decisions|
|Fraternity||Head of the state is an elected person|
|Secular||People should live like brothers and sisters|
|Sovereign||People have the supreme right to make decisions|
|Republic||Head of the state is an elected person|
|Fraternity||People should live like brothers and sisters|
|Secular||Government will not favor any religion|
7. How did your school celebrate Constitution Day on November 26th? Prepare a brief report.
Answer: Do it yourself.
8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
a. Democracy in India is a gift from the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under British rule.
b. Freedom Struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
c. We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
Answer: a. The training of representative legislative institutions during British rule can be considered an important factor, as it laid the foundation for democratic practices and institutions in India. But democracy is not a gift from the British rule.
b. The freedom struggle was against colonial exploitation. The struggle for independence created a strong sentiment for democracy and self-governance, making it a significant factor in the establishment of a democratic India.
c. The presence of leaders with democratic convictions was instrumental in shaping India’s democratic path. Their contribution helped the country towards a democratic system. India became a successful democratic country under the leadership of pt. Nehru, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, Dr. Rajendra Prasad & Sardar Vallabhbhai Ptel etc.
9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912.
‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defense. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of father, husband, and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men”.
Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
Answer. The values expressed in this para do not reflect the values underlying our constitution because the values of our constitution are based on the principle of equality, justice, and freedom for all individuals, regardless of gender. It upholds the fundamental rights and freedoms of every citizen, including women.
It provides safeguards against discrimination and promotes women’s empowerment in various spheres of life.
10. Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
a. The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.
b. Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
c. Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.
d. A constitution is about institutions, not about values
Answer. a. This statement is not true because the Constitution is the supreme law of the country.
b. This statement is true because the constitution lays out the powers of the legislature, executive,
c. This statement is true because the Constitution has provided Fundamental Rights to each and
every citizen of India which are mentioned in part III of the Constitution.
d. This statement is not true because the Constitution is not only about institutions’ work but also
about values- justice, liberty, fraternity, and equality.
class 9 political science chapter 2 extra questions
Book Page 20
1.What would have happened in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?
Answer: If the blacks had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation–
i) there would have been chaos, destruction, and loss of life everywhere.
ii) It would have likely resulted in a devastating and violent conflict with severe consequences for both sides. iii) It would have led to a breakdown of trust, increased racial tensions, and a divided society.
2. Make a poster on the life and struggle of Nelson Mandela. If available, read some portions of his autobiography, The Long Walk to Freedom, in the classroom.
- Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Mvezo, South Africa.
- He fought against the discriminatory apartheid regime.
- He spent 27 years in prison for his activism and beliefs.
- He became a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement.
- He wrote his autobiography during his imprisonment.
- He was freed in 1990 and became South Africa’s first black president in 1994.
- His leadership and commitment to justice inspired millions around the world.
- He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
- He founded various charitable organizations to improve education, health, and human rights.
- His inspirational Quote: “Education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world.”
- He remembered July 18 as Nelson Mandela International Day.
Book Page 21
3. This image captures the spirit of South Africa today. South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’. Can you guess why?
Answer: South Africans call themselves a ‘rainbow nation’ because the term represents the country’s diverse population and the coming together of different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. people from various backgrounds can live harmoniously and contribute to the nation’s development. The term ‘rainbow nation’ reflects the aspirations of a united, inclusive, and vibrant South Africa.
4. Does the story of the South African struggle for freedom remind you of the Indian national movement? Make a list of similarities and dissimilarities between the two on the following points:
- Nature of colonialism
- Relationships between different communities
- Leadership: Gandhi/ Mandela
- The party that led the struggle: African National Congress/ Indian National Congress
- Method of struggle
Answer: Yes, the story of the South African struggle for freedom reminds me of the Indian National Movement.
1. Nature of Colonialism:
Similarities: Both South Africa and India were under the control of European colonial powers.
Dissimilarities: South Africa was colonized by the Dutch and later by the British, while India was colonized by the British.
2. Relationship between Different Communities:
Similarities: Both South Africa and India had diverse populations with various ethnic, cultural, and religious communities. Colonialism regarded Indians and Africans as inferior to uncivilized people.
Dissimilarities: In South Africa, racial divisions and discrimination were enforced through the apartheid system, while in India, divisions were based on religion, with the Hindu-Muslim.
3. Leadership: Gandhi/Mandela
Similarities: Both were iconic leaders who played great roles in their respective struggles for freedom. Both promoted principles of justice, equality, and reconciliation.
Dissimilarities: Gandhi’s leadership was instrumental in India’s struggle for independence against British colonial rule, while Mandela’s leadership was to end apartheid and establish a democratic South Africa.
4. Party that Led the Struggle: African National Congress/ Indian National Congress
Similarities: Both were political organizations that led the struggles for freedom.
Dissimilarities: The ANC focused on addressing racial inequality and apartheid, while the INC had an agenda to achieve independence from British rule.
5. Method of Struggle:
Similarities: Both witnessed a range of methods and tactics employed during their struggles, such as peaceful protests, civil disobedience, boycotts, strikes, and legal challenges.
Dissimilarities: In South Africa, armed resistance and sabotage were more prevalent due to the repressive nature of apartheid, while India’s struggle was predominantly nonviolent under Gandhi’s influence.
Book Page 22
5. Approach a club or cooperative society or union or political party in your locality. Get a copy of their rule book (it is often called Rules of Association) and read it. Are these rules in accordance with the principles of democracy? Do they give membership to any person without discrimination?
Answer: The rules of a club, cooperative society, union, or political party are different from the principles of democracy. In a democracy, principles such as equality, transparency, accountability, and non-discrimination are considered fundamental.
To assess whether the rules of an organization attach to these democratic principles, it would be necessary to see their rule book. Look for provisions that address the following aspects:
- Are the rules allow any person to become a member without discrimination based on factors such as race, gender, religion, or socioeconomic background?
- Do the rules ensure that decisions within the organization are made democratically?
- Do the rules establish a clear system of governance and accountability?
- Do the rules outline mechanisms to address grievances and resolve conflicts fairly and impartially?
It is important to note that different organizations may have different levels of adherence to democratic principles. Assessing their rule book will provide a clearer understanding of their commitment to democracy.
6. This is not fair! What was the point in having a Constituent Assembly in India if all the basics were already decided?
Answer: The establishment of a Constituent Assembly in India, despite the basics being already decided, due to some important purposes:
i) The Constituent Assembly provided a platform for discussions and debates among representatives from various backgrounds.
ii) It provided an opportunity for diverse voices to contribute to the framing of the Constitution.
iii) It helped to shape specific rights, responsibilities, and mechanisms that would guide the functioning of the democratic state.
iv) It helped to lay the foundation for a vibrant and evolving democratic system in India.
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7. Read the information about all the makers of the Indian Constitution given in the side columns here. You don’t need to memorize this information. Just give examples from these to support the following statements:
1. The Assembly had many members who were not with the Congress.
2. The Assembly represented members from different social groups.
3. Members of the Assembly believed in different ideologies.
1. Jaipal Singh, Shyama Prasad Mukherjee & Somnath Lahri.
2. Adivasi Mahasabha, Andhra Mahila Sabha & Bhartiya Jana Sangha
3.. Rajendra Prasad, HC Mukherjee, Sarojini Naidu, Somnath Lahiri, Baldev Singh.
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8. Read the three quotations above carefully.
- Can you identify one idea that is common to all these three?
- What are the differences in their ways of expressing that common idea?
Answer: The common theme in these three quotations is the pursuit of social justice and equality within Indian society.
In the first quotation, Gandhiji worked for an India in which there should be no discrimination on the base of the higher or lower class of people and all people should live in harmony.
In the second quotation, BR Ambedkar said, “We are going to enter a life of contradictions. In politics, we will have equality but in social and economic life, we will have inequality.”
In the third quotation, Jawaharlal Nehru said about the ending of poverty, and inequality, “The service of India means the ending of poverty, ignorance, disease, and inequality of opportunity.”
Book Page 30
9. Compare the Preambles to the constitutions of the United States of America, India, and South Africa.
A. Make a list of ideas that are common to all three.
B. Note down at least one of the major differences among these.
C. Which of the three makes a reference to the past?
D. Which of these does not invoke God?
(A) i)The Preambles of these three countries start with, “We, the people.” It means the rule of the people.
ii) All three preambles emphasize the principle of equality, Liberty, peace & Sovereignty.
(B) One major difference among the preambles of these three countries is the historical context and goals they reflect.
i) The Preamble to the Constitution of the United States highlights a strong federal government.
iii) The Preamble to the Constitution of South Africa is based on democratic values, social justice, and fundamental human rights.”
iv) The Preamble to the Constitutions of India highlights the aspirations of “Justice, social, economic and political,” along with “Liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship.”
(C) South Africa makes a reference to the past.
(D) The United States of America does not invoke God.
Conclusion of Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2
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FAQ of Class 9 Political Science Chapter 2 constitutional design
1. Who is the father of the Constitution?
Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is known as the father of the Indian Constitution. He introduced the final draft of the Constitution in the Constituent Assembly.
2. What is constitutional design Class 9?
The process of creating and structuring a constitution for a nation. It involves determining the fundamental principles, rules, and institutions that will govern the political system and the relationships between the government and its citizens.
3. When was Constitution designed?
The constitution was designed for India from 1946 to 1950. It was adopted on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950.